Appropriating the Sidewalks for Physically-Motional Handicapped with the Approach of Safety (Case Study: Shahrdari Street in the Tajrish Neighborhood of Tehran)
Abstract. Disability, as a biological and social phenomenon, is a fact to be faced by all the societies regardless of their level of development; and their number is increasing every year as well. Due to a lot of issues like the war and the large numbers of handicapped and veterans in Iran, this has been considered so much. Therefore, developing the proper spatial and physical infrastructures is of particular importance. Today, so much physical deficiencies in cities have reduced the useful application of urban public spaces to minimum for the citizens and in many cases almost inconceivable to use. Meanwhile, we should note that among the urban spaces, sidewalks and walkways have specific importance, for the sidewalk is not only a passing way, but the major part of urban street network. Considering the limitations of physically- motional handicapped and the proper design of the sidewalks, by employing the useful physical and functional components, has great impact on improving safety, availability for pedestrians and as a result on the presence of citizens. Hence, the overall objective of this study is to develop the standards of appropriating the sidewalks for the physically-motional handicapped, in terms of safety. So Shahrdari street, located in Tajrish square of Tehran, as one of the most crowded streets of Iran`s capital has been chosen for the case study. This research is a descriptive-analytical study and the data is achieved by library and field studies.Afterwards, effective components of sidewalks` safety for physically-motional handicapped has been discovered by studying the former researches, appropriating sidewalks` criteria and interviewing with such disables, and these factors are categorized in two groups named physical properties and physical obstacles. Then by reviewing the questionnaires filled by the physically-motional disables, field observations in Shahrdari street`s sidewalks and interviewing with disables of welfare organization, there has been stated some strategies to improve these sidewalks` conditions, which the most important of them in terms of disables viewpoint is dedicated in the form of the appropriating design of Shahrdari street`s sidewalks.
Bromley, Rosemary D.F, Matthews, David L, Thomas, Colin J, 2007. City center accessibility for wheelchair users: The consumer perspective and the planning implications, City, No
DDA, 1995. Disability Discrimination Act. British Government. Available on-line: http://www.disability.gov.uk/dda/ (accessed August 2005)
Gleeson, B J, 1996. Geography for disabled people? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 387–396
Halprin, Lawrence, 1972. the MIT Press, Cities, Massachusetts
Hanniff, R, Kheder, R. 2007. Women with Disabilities in the Urban, Environment, Women and Urban Environments
Iran Statists Center, 1385. Journal of General Census of population and Housing.
Jacobs, Jane, 1993. Tod und Leben grober Amerikanischer stadte, Verlage Uhlstein GmbH, Frank furd
Miller, Donald, 1989. Lewis Mumford: A Life, New york: weidenfeld, Nicolson
Mirhadi, Rasoul, 1386. Documented Examples of Appropriating urban environment for The Disabled, Tehran, Research Center of Building and Housing, Journal NO. 100.
Moeeni, Mahdi, 1390. Walk-oriented Cities, Tehran, Azarakhsh press.
Organization of Rehabilitation and Social Welfare, 1362
Research Center of Building and Housing, 1386. Urbanism and Architecture Regulations for The physically- motional disabled
Revision Committee for Urbanism and Architecture Regulations, for The physically- motional disabled, 1391. Urbanism and Architecture Regulations for the physically- motional disabled, Research Center of Roads, Housing and Urbanism.
Rogers, W, 2003. The excellent city park system, In What make it great and how to get there, The trust for Public land, Washington
Safari, Abbas, Farrokhi, Farhang, Bayat, Nahid, 1387. Urban Design for The Disabled, Qom, Mashhur press.
Surensen, Robert James, Farah Habib, Rama Fayaz, 1370. Architecture for The Disabled, Tehran, Universal press.
Venter, C.J, Bogopane, H.I, Camba, J, Venkatesh, A, Rickert, T.E, Mulikita, N, Maunder, D.C, 2002. Improving accessibility for people with disabilities in urban areas , Conference of Togo
Yeats, M, 1999. Integrating urban design: Meeting the needs of people, Velocity 99 Graz Australia, Australia Studies
Yousefi, Mehri, 1390. Appropriating Urban Spaces to Be Used by The Disabled (case study: Shahriar), Tehran, Tehran Markaz Islamic Azad University.
http://www.afa-khrz.ir/ (Portal of Appropriating Campaign of Khorasan-Razavi Province)