Assessing Effective Factors for the Formation of City Image in Mashhad from the Viewpoint of Tourists by Structural Equation Modeling
Abstract. Considering today's competitive world and need of cities for introduction and survival in the competitive arena, it is inevitable to regard cities as a product. One of the ways to be introduced into the world's competitive market is through presenting the face of the city, which should be able to attract the audience. It seems that the first factor that is very important in this regard, especially from the viewpoint of tourists, is the dimension of city image and its related factors. City of Mashhad is among the urban tourist destinations in Iran for pilgrimage and religious tourism. This city has its own peculiarities which are caused by the position of this city as the first destination for domestic tourist trips and the spiritual capital city of the country. In this study, using analytical-applied method, the effective factors for the formation of the city image from the viewpoint of pilgrims/tourists is assessed and their current status is studied. The quantitative data of the current research that include the views of 385 tourists gathered using questionnaire are evaluated by normal test, one-sample and paired t-test, and radar charts in SPSS and Smart PLS software. The results demonstrate that, among 5 investigated factors (culture-history, architecture and urban planning, transportation and communications, range of services, and environment), the factor of architecture and urban planning is the most effective one for the formation of Mashhad city’s image. Also, a significant difference is observed between the current and favorable status of the above factors.
Afzali, A., Javdani Iraninejad, M., Mosalmanzadeh, S. (2013). Statistic Book of Mashhad (2012). Mashhad: Vice Chancellor for Planning and Developing Mashhad Municipality Supervised by Statistics and Data Analysis Management.
Anhalt, S. (2011). Competitive Identity: Modern Management of Branding for Nations, Cities, and Regions. (Translated by Mostafa Akbari Motlagh, Mojtaba Shakeriravesh, Mohammad Saleh Sharifi). Tehran: Tahan Publication. 1st Edition.
Arabi, S. M., Fayazi, M. (2009). Research Strategy in Human Resource Management. Journal of Human Resource Management Studies. Imam Hussein University (PBUH). 4 (1). pp 1-23.
Behzadfar, M. (2011). City Identity (A Look at Identity of Tehran). Tehran: Nashr- e-Shahr Publication. 3rd Edition.
Boisen, M. (2007). The Strategic Application of City Marketing to Middle-Sized Cities. Master Thesis for the title of Research. Utrecht University.
Chi, C., Qu, H. (2008). Examining the Structural Relationships of Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyality: An Integrated Approach. Journal of Tourist Management. 29. pp 624-636.
Divandari, A., Kermanshah, A., Ekhlasi, A. (2012). Presenting a Branding Model for Recreational, Residential, Tourism, and Sports Macro-projects with a Local Approach Based on Database Theory. Journal of Business. 65. pp 27-64.
Farnahad Consulting Engineers (2009). Development and Construction Plan (Comprehensive) of Mashhad Metropolis. Basic Studies on Human and Activity (Population).
Gaggiotti, H., Cheng, P., Yunak, O. (2008). City Brand Management (CBM): The Case of Kazakhestan. Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 4(2). pp 115- 123.
Golkar, K. (2008). Visual Environment of City: Evolution of Decorative Approach to Sustainable Approach. Scientific and Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 5 (4). pp 95-114.
Habib, F. (2006). Inquiry in Meaning of City Formation. Scientific and Research Journal of Fine Arts. 25, pp 5-14.
Habibi, A. (2012). Applied Training of SPSS Software. Tehran: Pars Modir Online Database.
Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2008). An Analysis of Terminology Use in Place Branding. Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 4(1). pp 61-75.
Helmy, M. (2008). Urban Branding Strategies and the Emerging ARAB Cityscape (The Image of the Gulf City). Stadtebau-Institute University.
Hunter, C., & Green, H. (1995). Tourism and the Environment: A Sustainable relationship?. London and New York.
Imani Khoshkhou, M. H., Ayoubi Yazdi, H. (2010). Effective Factors for Specific Value of Branding in Yazd Tourism Destination. Scientific and Research Journal of Tourism Studies. 13. pp 113-137.
Jam-e-Jam Online News Agency (2008). News Code: 100898810290; Accessible at http://www1.jamejamonline.ir/.
Jansson, J., & Power, D. (2006). The Image of the City (Urban Branding as Constructed Capabilities in Nordic City Regions). Department of Social and Economic Geography. Uppsala University.
Järvisalo, S. (2012). How to Build Successful City Brands? (Case Munich, Berlin and Hamburh). University of Applied Sciences.
Karavazaki, S. (2013). Visible Cities: The Role of Place Branding for a Sustainable Urban Development in European Cities at a Time of Crisis: A Case Study. Department of Earth Sciences Master Thesis, in Sustainable Development: Uppsala University.
Kavaratzis, M. (2008). From City Marketing to City Branding (An Interdiciplinary Analysis RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN. to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens).
Khaki, Q. (1999). Research Method with an Approach to Thesis Writing. Tehran: National Research Institute for Science Policy.
Kolb, B. M. (2011). Tourism marketing for cities: With an Emphasis on Branding and Special Events for Attracting Tourists. (Translated by Ali Movahed, Salar Kahzadi, Pegah Izadi). Tehran: Azarakhsh Publication. 1st Edition.
König, C. (2011). City Branding of Hong Kong - Imagineering Authenticity. Stockholm University School of Business.
Martı´nez, T. L., Garcı´a, S. D., Zapata, J. A., Molina, M. A. (2007). Modeling a City's Image: The Case of Granada. Journal of Cities. 24(5). pp 335-352.
Mayo, E. (1975). Tourism and National Parks: A Psychographic and Attitudinal Study. Journal of Travel Research. 14. pp 14-18.
Mehr News Agency. (2009). Accessible at http://www.mehrnews.com/.
Minghui, Q. (2009). A Study of Success Factors in City Branding: The ISE Conceptual Model. Marketin Science Innovations and Economic Development. pp 313-321.
Mousaei, M., Mir Talebi Aghdam, S. M. (2010). Evaluating International Tourism Marketing Activities by Tourism Organizations in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. Juornal of Social Sciences (monthly). 28. pp 76-93.
Movahed, A., Amanpour, S., Naderi, K. (2011). Urban Tourism Marketing Based on Branding Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model (Case Study: Kermanshah). Scientific Journal of Spatial Planning. 3 (1). pp 17-36.
National Geoscience Database of Iran. Accessible at http://www.ngdir.ir/.
Nourbakhsh, S. M., Akbarpour Saraskanroud, M. (2010). Role of Tourism in Economic Development of Metropolises; Journal of Urban Economy. Special Issue for Urban Tourism Economy. pp 20-24.
Parkerson, B., Saunders, J. (2005). City Branding: Can Goods and Sreviced Branding Models Be Used to Brand Cities? Journal of Place Branding. 1(3). pp 242-264.
Pfefferkorn, J. W. (2005). The Branding of Cities: Exploring City Branding and the Importance of Brand Image. MASTERS THESIS. Graduate School of Syracuse University.
Prilenska, V. (2012). City Branding as a Tool for Urban Regeneration: Towards a Theoretical Framework. Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning. 6. pp 12-16.
Qolipour, A., Abouie Ardakan, M., Peydayesh, E. (2011). Studying the Effective Factors in the Formation of City Image for Effective Urban Branding. Scientific and Research Journal of Fine arts. 45. pp 37-46
Qu, H., Kim, L., Im, H. (2011). A Model of Destination Branding: Integrating the Concepts of the Branding and Destination Image. Journal of Tourism Management. 32. pp 465-476.
Saei, A., Naiji, M., Rezaie, M. (2010). Relationship between Advertisement and Attracting Cultural Tourists in Iran (Case study of Cultural Foreign Tourists in Isfahan). Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. 4 (1). pp 69-94.
Saqaei, M., Javanbakht Qahfarokhi, Z., Hataminejad, H., Sabet Koushakinian, M. (2012). Role of Branding Management in the Tourism Economy of Metropolises (Case Study: Mashhad Religious Metropolis). 1st National Conference on Geography, Environmental Disasters, and Sustainable Development in Ahvaz. Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch.
Sonnleitner, K. (2011). Destination Image and Its Effects on Marketing and Branding a Tourist Destination (A Case Study about the Austian National Tourist Office with a Focus on the Market Sweden). (Master’s Dissertation 30 ECTS ed.). Södertörn University - School of Business Studies.
Tasci, A., Gartner, W. (2007). Destination Image and Its Functional Relationships. Journal of Travel Research. 45. pp 413-425.
Vanolo, A. (2008). The Image of the Creative City: Some Reflections on Urban Branding in Turin. Journal of Cities. 25. pp 370-382.
Vary, A. P. (2011). The Anholt-GMI City Brand Hexagon and the Saffron European City Brand Barometer: A Comparative Study. Journal of Regional and Business Studies. 3(1). pp 555-562.
Zhang, L., Zhao, S. (2009). City Branding and the Olympic Effect: A Case Study of Bijing. Journal of Cities. 26. pp 245-254.
Zhao, X., Shields, T., Latshaw, L. (2009). The Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index 2009 Highlights Report. GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media.