Alireza Moshabaki ESFAHANI
2.597 500


Various disciplines of humanities and engineering could be useful in reduction of crises. Among such disciplines is passive defense that has a critical role in the security of the country if its quality improves. Considerations of passive defense in architectural design, as an instrument, enhance the defensive power and appropriately meet the security needs. Examining the civil defense code in the architectural section and available global instances the present study is conducted in two stages of planning and presentation of the design in order to express the process that governs the design of buildings according to the standards of passive defense management. The results have been proposed in the form of tables. To obtain desired results and information, the collection of data has been performed through library research encompassing books, papers, articles etc.


Passive Defense, architectural design, risk assessment process

Full Text:



Asgharian Jeddi, A. (2004). Architectural Requirements in Stable Passive defense. PhD dissertation, School of Architecture, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.

Asgharian Jeddi, A. (1995). Passive defense in Bam. Paper presented at the Congress of History of Architecture and Urban Development, Iranian National Organization of Cultural Heritage, Tehran.

Haji Ebrahim Barzegar, A. & Mesgari Houshyar, S. (1999). Passive defense in Architecture: Solutions to Risk Reduction in incidence. Third International Conference on Crisis Management in Natural Unexpected Events, Tehran.

Hosseini, S. B. (1999). Passive defense Standards for Architectural Design of Urban Complexes. Tehran, Abed Publications.

Daei Nejad, F. et al. (2006). Principles and Guidelines of Designing And Equipping Open Spaces of Residential Complexes for Passive Defense. Tehran, Center for Building and Housing Research.

Ziari, K. (1999). Planning new cities. Organization of Studies and Development of Human Sciences Academic Books (SAMT), Tehran.

Dehkhoda, A. A. (1772). Dehkhoda Glossary (4th Ed.). University of Tehran, Institution for Printing and Publication, pp. 47-48.

Sadri Afshar, Gh. & Hakami, N. (1994). Persian Today Dictionary. Kalameh Publications, Tehran. pp. 259 and 546.

Issue 21 of National Building Regulations (2012). Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran.

DOD Security Engineering Facilities Planning Manual(2008), Unified Facilities Criteria.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-426. (2003) Risk Management Series, Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks against Buildings, Chapter 2, 3.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-427. (2003) Risk Management Series, Primer for Design of CommercialBuilding to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks, Chapter 6.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-428. (2003) Risk Management Series, Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks.

Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA)- 430(2007), Risk Management Series , Guidance Against Potential Terrorist Attacks Site and Urban Design for Security, USA.

Federal Emergency Management Agency -452 (2005), Risk Management Series, A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings, USA.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-453. (2003) Risk Management Series, Safe Rooms and Shelters, Protecting People Against Terrorist Attacks.

Department Of Defense (DOD) Minimum Antiterrorism Standards For Building, USA, 2002.

GSA Security Criteria(1997), Building Technologies Division Office of Property Development Public Buildings Service General Services Administration.