Fracture Analysis of the Orthopedic Plates used in Joining of the Lower-Limb Bones
Abstract. Breakage of the orthopedic plates that join the fractured bones of the lower-limb can cause major problems in healing treatment of the patients. Augmentation of the necessary medical treatment, prolongation of the healing duration and medical cost enhancement are a few problems caused. An investigation on the root of such failures is beneficial to prevent such disasters. Consideration was given therefore to 100 patients hospitalized in Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran. Lower limb examinations showed 6 broken plates, 1 broken rod and 1 broken nail. All broken samples were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Cyclic loading was revealed as the main source of the undesirable problem. Marginal incentives were also identifiable; some of them were: (a) large static and dynamic loads, (b) patient's premature movements, (c) presence of inclusions in the plates and (d) porous plates made by rare incompetent manufacturers.
Mudalik, Sridhar, T.M. and RAJ, B. (2003), “Corrosion of bio implants,” Sadhana Vol. 28, Parts 3&4 , pp. 601–637.
Campbell, C. (1998), “Campbell Operative Orthopaedics,” Mosby Publishers.
Azevedo, C. R. F. and Hippert, Jr. E. (2002), “Failure analysis of surgical implants in Brazil,” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 9, pp.621–633.
Senalp, Z. and Kayabasi, O. and Kurtaran, H. (2007), “Static, dynamic and fatigue behavior of newly designed stem shapes for hip prosthesis using finite element analysis,” Materials and Design, vol 28, issue 5, pp:1577-83.
Sharma, C. A. and Ashok Kumar, M. G. and Joshi, G. R. and John J. T. (2006),“Retrospective Study of Implant Failure in Orthopaedic Surgery,” MJAFI, Vol. 62, pp 70-72.
Park , Joon B. And lakes, Roderic S. (2003). “Biomaterials an Introduction, ” Translated by: Fathi M. H. & Mortazavi V. Esfahan: Arkan , (in Persian).
Trajanović, M. and Korunović, N. and Milovanović, J. Vitković, N. and Mitković, M. (2010), “Application of computer models of Mitković selfdynabizable internal fixator in rehabilitation of femur traumas”, FACTA UNIVERSITATIS, Series: Mechanical Engineering Vol. 8, No 1, pp. 27.
Kannan, S. and Balamurugan, A. andRajeswari, S. (2003), “Hydroxyapatite coatings on sulfuric acid treated type 316L SS and its electrochemical behaviour in Ringer's solution,” Mater Lett. 57:2382– 2389.
Sutcliff, M.P.F. and Kim, H.J. and Chang, S.H. and Huang, Y. (July 2009), “Development of a composite bone plate fixation of a fractured tibia,”18Th International Conference on Composite Materials, Scotland.
Mark, M. I. “Thermodynamics of Aqueous corrosion,” Ref. 5, page 18.
Maruyama, N. and Mori, D. and Hiromoto, S. Kanazawa, K. Nakamura, M. (2011), “Fatigue strength of 316L-type stainless steel in simulated body fluids,”Corrosion Science 53, pp. 2222–27.
Donachie. M, (1998), “Biomedical Alloy,” Advanced Materials & Processes, No. 7.
Naghdi, F.and Farhangi, H. and ZahiriAzar, M. and Ammari A. A, (7–9 November 2007), “Fractographic investigation of failures in 316L stainless steel orthopedic condylar blade plate,” Proceedings of 8th International Fracture Conference, Istanbul/TURKEY.
Petković, D. Radenković, G. Mitković, M. (2012), “Fractogeraphic investigation of failure in stainless steel orthopedic plates,” Mechanical Engineering Vol. 10, No 1, pp. 7 – 14.
Larens, H. and Van, V. (1992), “Principles of Engineering and Materials Sciences,” Translated by F. Ashrafizadeh, Nasher Daneshgahi, Tehran, Iran.
Rotne, R. Bertollo, N. Walsh, W. Dhand, N. K.Voss, K. and Johnson, K. A. (2014), “Influence of plate–bone contact on cyclically loaded conically coupled locking plate failure,” Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 45, pp.515–521.
Sadrnekhaad, K. and Rasooli, E. (1997), "Corrosion of metallic parts in human Body," The 5th national Iranian Corrosion congress. Sharif University of technology. Tehran. Iranian Corrosion Association, (in Persian).
Ahmadi, Sh. and Amari, A. E. and Hadavi, S. M. M. (2005), "The study of impact of Non- metallic material on metallic implants fatigue failure," The ninth annually congress of Iranian Engineers of metallurgy association. Shiraz, Iran, (in Persian).