Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydroalcoholic extract of the Melilotus indicus (L) in male mice
Abstract. In current study, the antinociceptive and anti-neuropathic pain effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Melilotus indicus in male mice were assessed using formalin and hot plate tests, respectively. Cotton pellet- induced granuloma model was employed for anti- inflammatory assessments. Melilotus indicus hydroalcoholic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg, oral gavage) reduced the time and the number of lickings during the late phase of the formalin test. Anti-neuropathic pain properties were obtained with the dose of 100 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effect of this extract (100 mg/kg) was confirmed by a significant decrease in Cotton pellet weight.
Dildar A, Hira B, Saman Z. Seasonal variation of phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of methanolic extract of Melilotus indicus and its sub- fractions in different solvents. Phytomedicine. 4(3):326-32( 2013)
Mousavi SH, Alami-Saeid KH, Moshatati M. Effect of leaf, stem and root extract of alfalfa (Melilotus indicus) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum). IJACS. 5(1):44-9(2013)
Gupta AK, Bose S. Structure of the d-galacto-d-mannan isolated from the seeds of Melilotus indica. All. Carbohydr Res. 153(1):69-77( 1986)
Yadava R, Jain S. A new bioactive flavone glycoside from the seeds of Melilotus indica All. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 7(4):595-9(2005)
Karimi GR, Tabrizian K, Rezaee R, Evaluation of the analgesic effect of dextromethorphan and its interaction with nitric oxide on sciatic nerve ligated rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud.; 3(1),pp. 38−42. (2010
Kunanusorn P, Teekachunhatean S, Sangdee C, Panthong A. Antinociceptive and anti- inflammatory activities of a chinese herbal recipe (DJW) in animal models. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products. 2(1),pp. 1-8 (2009)
Chen YF, Tsai HY, Wu TS, Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities from roots of Angelica pubescens. Planta Med, 61,pp. 2-8 (1995)
Abbott FV, Melzack R, Samuel C, Morphine analgesia in tail-flick and formalin pain tests is mediated by different neural systems. Exp Neurol, 75,pp. 644-651 (1982)
Alreja M, Mutalik P, Nayar U, Manchanda SK. The formalin test: a tonic pain model in the primate. Pain, 20,pp. 97-105 (1984)
Shibata M, Ohkubo T, Takahashi H, Inoki R. Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response. Pain, 38,pp. 347-352 (1989)
Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain.; 51, pp. 5-17 (1992).
Hunskaar S, Hole K. The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain.; 30, pp. 103-114.(1989)
Schumacher MA, Basbaum MI, Way WL. Opioid analgesics & antagonists. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; p 489- 510.(2007)
Karimi GR, Hosseinzadeh H, Rassoulzadeh M, Razavi BM and Taghiabadi E.Antinociceptive Effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruits on Sciatic Nerve Ligated Mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 13 (3),pp. 97-101 (2007)
Küpeli E, Yesilada E. Flavonoids with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity from Cistus laurifolius L. leaves through bioassay-guided procedures. J Ethnopharmacol. 112, pp. 524-30(2007).
Erdemoglu N, Akkol EK, Yesilada E, CalIs I . Bioassay-guided isolation of anti- inflammatory andantinociceptive principles from a folk remedy, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 119, pp. 172-78(2008).
Ghogare UR, Nirmal SA, Patil RY, Kharya MD. Antinociceptive activity of Gynandropsis gynandra leaves. Nat Prod Res.; 23, pp. 327-33(2009)
Miri A. Determination of phenolics and flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and major flavonoids structure in Teucrium Persicum Boiss. J Anim Vet Adv. 10(10), pp. 1258- 1261(2011)
Swingle KF, Shideman FE. Phases of the inflammatory response to subcutaneous implantation of cotton pellet and their modification by certain anti-inflammatory agent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 183, pp. 226-234 (1972).
Figure 1. Effects of melilotus indicus, morphine and diclofenac in the first (A and B) and second phase (C and D) of
the formalin test. Each value represents the mean ± S.E.M. (n=7). **p< 0.01 and ***p<0.001 significantly different
from the control animals.