Explicitation in Translation: Culture-Specific Items from Persian into English

Neda MORADI, Muhamad RAHBAR, Mohsen OLFATI
2.294 970


Abstract. Investigating the concept of explicitation has been the center of attention to many scholars recent years. A lot of studies have been carried out dealing with the exploitation of explicitation on the culture-specific items on the translation of English source text into Persian. However, few studies has been carried out investigating such culture-specific items on Persian source text translated into English. The present article aims at providing sufficient data to cover the identification and classification of different kinds of culture-specific items exploited in the translation of a Persian novel entitled Boof-e Koor by Hedayat, S. (1937) and its translated version into English The Blind Owl by Bashiri, I. (1974). Its peripheral objective is also identifying the most frequent strategy adopted to explicitate the culture-specific items in the translation of the above mentioned novel. To this end, the study adapts a conceptual framework incorporating Klaudy’s (2008) typology of explicitation entailing obligatory ,optional ,pragmatic and translation-inherent explicitation as well as Newmark’s (2010) classifications of culture-specific items comprising of ecology, public life, social life, personal life, customs and pursuits and private passions. The Findings of this study show culture items were more translated by adopting pragmatic explicitation. This study introduces explicitation as applicable strategies for translating culture-specific items to translator.


Explicitation, culture-specific items, translation

Full Text:



Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words: A course book on translation .London and New York: Routledge.

Baker, M. (1993). Corpus linguistics and translation studies-implications and applications. In M.Baker, G. Francis & E. Tognini-Boneli (Eds.), Text and technology- In Honor of John Sinclair (pp. 233-350). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Blum-Kulka, S. (1986). Shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.), Translation studies reader (pp. 290-305). London and New York: Routledge.

Englund-Dimitrova, B. (2005). Expertise and explicitation in the translation process. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Klaudy, K. (1998). Explicitation. In M. Baker and G. Saldanha (Eds.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (pp. 80-84). London and New York: Routledge.

Leuven-Zwart, K. (1989) ‘Translation and original: similarities and dissimilarities, I’, Target 1.2: 151–81.

Munday, Jeremy. (2001).Introducing translation studies. London: Routledge.

Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall.

Nida, Eugene A. (1964). Toward a science of translating. Leiden: Brill.

Olohan, M and Baker, M. (2000). “Reporting that in translated English: Evidence for subconscious processes of explicitation?’ Across Languages and Cultures1 (2): 141-158.

Øverås, L. (1998). In search of the third Code: An investigation of norms in literary translation. Meta: Translators' Journal, 43 (4), 557-570.

Pápai, V. (2004). Explicitation- a universal of translated text? In A. Mauranen, & R. Kujamaki (Eds.), Translation universal: Do they exist? (pp. 143-164). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Chesterman, Andrew. 2004. “Beyond the particular”, Anna Mauranen and Pekka Kujamäki, eds Translation Universals. Do they exist? 33-49. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the Functions of Language. London: Edward Arnold.

Holmes, J. S. (1970). The Nature of Translation: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Literary Translation, The Hague and Paris: Mouton.

Perego, E. (2003). Evidence of explicitation in subtitling: Towards a categorization. Across Languages and Cultures, 4 (1), 63-88.

Shlesinger, Miriam. 1991. “Interpreter latitude vs. due process. Simultaneous and consecutive interpretation in multilingual trials”. Sonia Tirkkonen-Condit, ed.Empirical Research in Translation and Interpretation Studies. Tübingen: Narr.147-155.

Sidiropoulou, M. (1995). Causal shifts in news reporting: English vs. Greek press. Perspectives: studies in translatology. London. Routledge.

Toury, G. (1978). The Nature and Role of Norms in Translation. In Venuty, L. The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge.translation studies- In Honor of Kinga Klaudy (pp. 29-34). Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.translation. Meta: Translators' Journal, 43 (4), 557-570.

Weissbrod, R. (1992). Explicitation in translations of prose-fiction from English to Hebrew as a function of norms.p.168.