Effects of high frequency electromagnetic wave and salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological and biochemical parameters in Lycopersicon esculentum

2.344 475


Abstract. Salicylic acid in a phenolic phytohormone with roles in plant growth and development.It also acts an endogenous signaling during biotic and abiotic stresses. Among various stresses the impacts of high frequency Electromagnetic waves (hfew) on plant growth and development have not been studied extensively.in the present study, the effect of 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1 mM salicylic acid or pretreatment of seed for 48 hrs with electromagnetic waves of high frequency (940 MHz) on plant growth and some biochemical parameters were investigated.hydrogen peroxide increased at 0.05 and 0.1 mM salicylic acid compared to control. Hydrogen peroxide also increased when seeds were pre-treated with HFEW. In contrast, carotenoids and anthocyanin content decreased in the presence of salicylic acid. Chlorophyll and carotenoids declined while antocyanin increased in pre-treated seeds with HFEW.Malondialdehyde content, as a sign of lipid peroxidation, increased in the presence of both salicylic acid and HFEW. It is concluded that high salicylic acid and HFEW cause oxidative stress in plant which can result in reduced plant growth and development.


Lycopersicon esculentum, High frequency electromagnetic wave, Biochemical parameters,Salicylic acid

Full Text:



Aladjadjiyan, A.2002. Study of the influence of magnetic field on some biological characteristics of Zea mays. Journal Central European Agriculture.3: 89-94.

Alorainy, A. 2003. Recent research on mobile phones effects. The international conference on non- ionizing radiation at electromagnetic field and our health. Kula Lumpur, Malaysia. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.

Arza, PL and Garcia, RF. 2001. Influence of a stationary magnetic field on water relations in lettuce seeds. Bioelectromagnetics. 22: 589-595.

Ayrapetyan, G. 2006. The effect of EMF waves on barley seed hydration and germination potential. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications 4: 65-76.

Cakmak, T., Dumlupinar, R. and Erdal, S. 2009. Acceleration of germination and early growth of wheat and bean seedlings grown under various magnetic field and osmotic conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 31: 120-129.

Belyavskaya, N. 2004. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field of plants. Advances in Space Research. 34: 1566-1574.

Chen, J., Cheng, Z. and Zhong, S. (2007) Effect of exogegenous salicylic acid on growth and H2O2- Metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings lead stress. Journal of Environmental sciences 19: 44-49.

Davies, M. 1996. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results. Bioelectromagnetics. 17: 154-61.

Dhawi, F. and Al-Khayri, J. 2009. The effect of magnetic resonance imaging on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) elemental composition. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science. 4: 14-20.

Draper, G., Vincent, T., Kroll, M. and Swanson, J. 2005. Childhood cancer in relation to distance from high voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case-control study. British Medical Journal. 330: 1290-1295.

Dhindsa, R. S. and Motowe, W. 1981. Drought tolerance in two mosses: correlation with enzymatic defense against lipid peroxidation. Journal of Experimental Botany 32: 79-91.

Gawel S,Wardas M, Niedworok E,Wardas P. 2004.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker. Wiad Lek. 57: 453-455.

Heath, R. L., Packer, L. 1969. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast, kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemmistry.125: 189-198.

Horvath, E., Janda, T., Szalai, G. and Paldi, E. 2002. In vitro salicylic acid inhibition of catalase activity in maize: differences between the isoenzymes and a possible role in the induction of chilling tolerance.Plant Science.163: 1129- 1135.

Hugo, W. 2009. Genotoxic effects of radioferequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology Journal. 5: 1-14.

Hyodo, H. and Yang, Sh. 1997. Ethylene enhance synthesis of phenylalanine ammonialyase in pea seedlings. Plant Physiology. 47: 765-770.

Kula A, Sobczak A, Kuska R. 2002. Effects of electromagnetic field on free-radical processes i steelworkers. Part I: Magnetic field influence on the antioxidant activity in red blood cells and plasma. J Occup Health. 44: 226–229.

Kresimir, M., Mirjania, P. and Mitra, T. 2009. Effects of radioferequency electromagnetic fields on seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium. Genetic Taxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Journal. 2: 78-81.

Lichtenthaler, H. K. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology. 148: 350-382.

Lozak, A. and Soltyk, K. 2002. Determination of selected trace elements in herbs and their influsions. Science Environment. 289:33-40.

Popova, L., Pancheva, T. and Uzonova, A. 1997. Salicylic acid: properties, biosynthesis and physiological role. Plant Physiology. 23: 85-93.

Qinghua, S. H. and Zhujun, Z. (2008) Effect of exogenous salicylic acid on manganese toxicity, element contents and antioxidative system in cucumber.Environmental and Experimental Botany 63:317-326.

Roy and Repacholi MH, Greenebaum B. 1999. Interaction of static and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields with living systems: Health effects and research needs. Bioelec- tromagnetics. 20:133–160.

Sairam, R. K., Deshmukh, P. S. and Saxena, D. C. 1998. Role of ntioxidantsystemes in wheat genotype tolerance to water stress. Plant Biology. 41(3): 387-394.

Shakirova, F. M., Sakhabutdinova, A. R., Bozrutkova. 2003. Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Science. 164: 317-322.

Sreenivassula N., Grimm B.,Wobus U.,Weschke W. 2000. Different response of antioxidant compound to salinity stress in salt tolerant and salt sensitive seedling of setaria italic. Physiologia plantarum. 109: 435-442.

Velikova, V., Yordanov, I. and Edreva, A. 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants. Plant Science.151: 59-66.

Vasilevski, M. 2003. Perspectives of application of biophysical methods in sustainablagriculture. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, Special Issue: 179-186.

Wang, H., Feng, T. and Yan, M. 2009. Upregulation of chloroplastic antioxidant capacity is involved in alleviation of nickel toxicity of Zea mays by exogenous salicylic acid. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.75: 1354-62.

Wanger, G. J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanins in protoplast. Plant Physiology. 64: 88-93.

Zhu, J. K. 2001. Cell signaling under salt, water and cold stresses. Plant Biology. 4:401-406.

Zmyslony, M., Palus, J. Jajte, J. Dziubaltowska, E. Rajkowska, E. 2000. DNA damage in rat lymphocytes treated in vitro with iron cation and exposed to 7 mT magnetic field (static or 50 Hz). Mutation Research.453: 89-96