Genetic Engineering and Strategies to Cope with Plants chilling
Abstract. One of the main environmental challenges in plants life is stress caused by abiotic environmental factors such as chilling and freezing which lead to cellular water deficit. Annually damage caused by spring frost leads to billions of dollars of economic losses. Cold stress with plants growth at low temperatures or cold climates has been studied. Plants have different adaptive mechanisms to cope with adverse effects of various abiotic stresses such as cold. chilling denotes physical and physiological changes which occur as a result of plants collision with cold. Cold stress is associated with a set of adaptive paths in plants such as activating various adaptive responses regulators and physiological and metabolic changes caused by stress. The studies have proven the relationship of biological materials such as osmolytes and compatible solutes, membrane lipids, heat shock proteins and antifreeze proteins, factors to remove active oxygen and their role in plants cold stress tolerance, controlling ice nucleating bacteria etc. In the present study, genetic engineering strategies are discussed to modify and achieve physiological and molecular adoption by changing the amount and composition of mentioned materials in living creatures and manipulating the number of ice nucleating active bacteria and creating mutants lacking ice nucleation and also future perspectives in the field of plants molecular modification for cold stress tolerance.
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