Emotional Intelligence, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Language Learning Strategies Use of EFL Learners: A Study of Relations
Abstract. The present study aimed at investigating the relationship among EFL learners’ emotional intelligence, tolerance of ambiguity, and language learning strategies use. The data was collected from 75 EFL senior undergraduate students majoring in English regarding the relationship among their emotional intelligence, tolerance of ambiguity, and language learning strategies use. To this end, three instruments of Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al., 1998), Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1989), and Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (Oxford, 1990), with the focus on metacognitive, affective and social strategies, were administered. The results demonstrated there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and tolerance of ambiguity. But emotional intelligence was found to have a significant positive relationship with metacognitive, affective, and social learning strategies use. Moreover, tolerance of ambiguity was revealed to bear no significant relationship with the use of metacognitive and affective strategies, but its relationship with social strategies use was significantly negative. The existence or non-existence of any relationship provides the audience with some implications at the end.
Adrian-Vallance, E., Marwick, K. C., Dignen, S., Handorf, S., Hollingworth, L., Manning, E.,Wedgeworth, L. (Eds.).(2009). Longman dictionary of contemporary English. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Aghasafari, M. (2006).On the relationship between emotional intelligence and language learning strategies. (Unpublished master’s thesis). AllamehTabataba’i University, Iran.
Akbarzadeh, N. (2004). Emotional Intelligence(in the view of Salovey et al.). Tehran: Farabi Publications (in Persian).
Allwright, D. (1990). Autonomy in language pedagogy. Lancaster, UK: Center for Research in Education, University of Lancaster.
AugostoLanda, J. M., Martos, M. P., & Lopez-Zafra, E. (2010).Emotional intelligence and personality traits as predictors of psychological well-being in Spanish undergraduates.SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERSONALITY,38 (6), 783-794.
Bar-On, R. (1988). The development of a concept of psychological wellbeing. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Rhodes University, SouthAfrica.
Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory (EQ-I). In R. Bar-On, & J. D., Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence, (pp. 363–388). Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
Bar-On, R. (2004). The Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-I):Rationale, description and psychometric properties. In G. Geher (Ed.),Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy,(pp. 111-142). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.
Beasley, K. (1987).The Emotional Quotient.Mensa Magazine-United Kingdom Edition.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5thed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Budner, S. (1962).Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable.Journal of Personality,30, 821-828.
Chapelle, C. A.(1983).The relationship between ambiguity tolerance and success in acquiring English as a second language in adult learners .(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Illinois, Illinois, USA.
Chapelle, C. A., & Robert, C. (1986).Tolerance and field independence as predictors of proficiency in English as a second language.Language Learning, 36, 27-45.
Cohen, A. D. (2000).Strategies in learning and using a second language. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Cook, V. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold.
Ehrman, M. E. (1993). Ego boundaries revisited: Toward a model of personality and learning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press
Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. L., & Oxford, R. L. (2003).A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31, 313-330.
Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. (1990).Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting.Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311-327.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ely, C. M. (1989).Tolerance of ambiguity and use of second language strategies.Foreign Language Annals,22, 437-445.
Ely, C.M. (1995).Tolerance of ambiguity and the teaching of ESL.In Reid, J. M. (Ed.).Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Gardner, H. (1975) .The Shattered Mind. New York: Knopf.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind.Basic Books: New York.
Gerami, M. H., Madani Ghareh Baghilou, Sh. (2011).Language learning strategies used by successful and unsuccessful Iranian EFL learners. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1567-1578.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. NY, NY: Bantam Books.
Green, J., & Oxford, R. L. (1995).A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender.TESOL Quarterly,29, 261-297.
Griffiths, C. (2007). Language learning strategies: Student's and teacher's perceptions. ELT Journal 61(2), 91-99.
Hasanzadeh, R., & Shahmohamadi, F. (2011).Study of emotional intelligence and learning strategies.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1824 - 1829.
Hein, S. (2003). EQ for everybody. Tampa, FL: Aristotle Press.
Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues, and problems. Dublin: Authentik.
McLain, D. L. (1993). The MSTAT-1: A new measure of an individual’s tolerance for ambiguity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53,183-189.
Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H. H., &Todesco, A. (1978).The good language learner.Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Nosratinia , M., Niknam, M., & Sarabchian, E. (2013). The role of emotional intelligence and tolerance of ambiguity in predicting EFL learners’ language learning strategies. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 17, (1), 22-29.
Nunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology. London: Prentice Hall.
O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A. U.,Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo, R. P.,& Küpper, L.(1985). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language.TESOL Quarterly, 19, 557–584.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies:What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Payne, W. L. (1985). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self- integrstion; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure, of reality, problem solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go). ( Doctoral Dissertation). Cincinnati, OH: The Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities.
Petrides, K.V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004).The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school.Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 277–293.
Pishghadam, R. (2009). Emotional and verbal intelligences in language learning. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3(1), 43–64.
Reiss, M. A. (1985). The good language learner: Another look, Canadian Modern Language Review, 41, 511-523.
Richards, J., & Platt, J. (1992). Longman dictionary of applied linguistics.London: Longman Group Ltd.
Riemer, M. J. (2003). The impact of emotional intelligence on communication in engineering education. Proceedings of the 6th UICEE Annual Conference on Engineering Education, Cairns, Australia, 203-206.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly,9(1), 41-51.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 117-131.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9 (3), 185-211.
Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., &Dorheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177.
Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses, Harper's Magazine, 140, 227-235.
Wechsler, D. (1940). Nonintellective factors in general intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 37, 444-445.
Wenden, A.L. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. New York: Prentice-Hall.
White, C. (1999). Expectations and emergent beliefs of self-instructed language learners. System, 27, 443-457.
Zimmerma, B. J., & Pons, M. M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614-628.