Anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the Spergularia Marina (L). Griseb in male mice
Abstract. In this study, the anti-nociceptive properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Spergularia Marina (L). Griseb in male mice were carried out using chemical (writhing and formalin) and thermal (hot plate) models of nociception. Cotton pellet- induced granuloma model was used for anti- inflammatory investigations in male mice. Spergularia Marina hydroalcoholic extract (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, oral gavage) reduced time and number of paw licks during the second phase of the formalin test and the number of writhings. This extract did not show any significant analgesia on acute pain in first phase of the formalin test. Also, the effect of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) in sciatic nerve ligation model provides a confirmation of its probable antineuropathic pain properties. Anti-inflammatory effect of this extract (50 mg/kg) was confirmed by a significant decrease in Cotton pellet weight in male mice.
Gamal El-Dien O, Shawky E, Amal H. Aly, Rokia M. .(2014), Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb.Growing in Egypt , Natural Product Sciences 20(3) ,pp. 152-159.
Vinholes J, Grosso C, Paula B.(2011), In vitro studies to assess the antidiabetic, anti- cholinesterase and antioxidant potential of Spergularia rubra. Food Chemistry 129,pp. 454– 462.
Karimi GR, Tabrizian K, Rezaee R.(2010), Evaluation of the analgesic effect of dextromethorphan and its interaction with nitric oxide on sciatic nerve ligated rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud.; 3(1),pp. 38−42.
Kunanusorn P, Teekachunhatean S, Sangdee C, Panthong A.(2009), Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a chinese herbal recipe (DJW) in animal models. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products. 2(1),pp. 1-8.
Chen YF, Tsai HY, Wu TS.(1995), Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities from roots of Angelica pubescens. Planta Med, 61,pp. 2-8.
Abbott FV, Melzack R, Samuel C.(1982), Morphine analgesia in tail-flick and formalin pain tests is mediated by different neural systems. Exp Neurol, 75,pp. 644-651.
Alreja M, Mutalik P, Nayar U, Manchanda SK. (1984), The formalin test: a tonic pain model in the primate. Pain, 20,pp. 97-105.
Shibata M, Ohkubo T, Takahashi H, Inoki R.(1989), Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response. Pain, 38,pp. 347-352.
Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K.(1992), The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain.; 51, pp. 5-17.
Hunskaar S, Hole K. (1987), The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain.; 30, pp. 103-114.
Schumacher MA, Basbaum MI, Way WL.(2007), Opioid analgesics & antagonists. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; p 489-510.
Karimi GR, Hosseinzadeh H, Rassoulzadeh M, Razavi BM and Taghiabadi E.(2010), Antinociceptive Effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruits on Sciatic Nerve Ligated Mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 13 (3),pp. 97-101.
Küpeli E, Yesilada E. Flavonoids with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity from Cistus laurifolius L. leaves through bioassay-guided procedures. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 112, pp. 524-30.
Erdemoglu N, Akkol EK, Yesilada E, CalIs I .(2008), Bioassay-guided isolation of anti- inflammatory andantinociceptive principles from a folk remedy, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 119, pp. 172-78.
Ghogare UR, Nirmal SA, Patil RY, Kharya MD. (2009), Antinociceptive activity of Gynandropsis gynandra leaves. Nat Prod Res.; 23, pp. 327-33.
Miri A. (2011), Determination of phenolics and flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and major flavonoids structure in Teucrium Persicum Boiss. J Anim Vet Adv. 10(10), pp. 1258-1261.
Swingle KF, Shideman FE. (1972), Phases of the inflammatory response to subcutaneous implantation of cotton pellet and their modification by certain anti-inflammatory agent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 183, pp. 226-234.
Figure 1. Effects of Spergularia marina, morphine and diclofenac in the early (A and B) and late phase ( C and D) of
the formalin test in mice by assessing the licking time and the number of lickings. Each value represents the mean ±
S.E.M. for 7 mice. *p<0.05, **p< 0.01 and ***p<0.001 significantly different from the control animals.
Figure 2. Effects of treatment with Spergularia marina on acetic acid- induced abdominal constrictions in mice. Each
value represents the mean ± S.E.M. for 7 mice. *p<0.05, **p< 0.01 and ***p<0.001 significantly different from the
control animals. Sham nerve ligated
14 days after surgery
Figure 3. Changes in reaction time in sham-operated and nerve ligated mice, 14 days after the sciatic nerve ligation.
Each value represents the mean ± S.E.M. for 7 mice. ***p<0.001 significantly different from the control (sham) - treated animals.
Figures 4. A-E. Latency response of the Spergularia marina treated animals in comparison with the control and
imipramine- treated animals (n = 7, mean ± S.E.M.).
Figs A, B, C, D and E represent assessment of anti-nociception at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively. *p<0.05,
**p< 0.01 and ***p<0.001 significantly different from the control animals. #p<0.05 significantly different from the
imipramine- treated animals.
Figure 5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Spergularia marina in cotton pellet- induced granuloma formation (n = 7,
mean ± S.E.M.). *p<0.05 and **p< 0.01significantly different from the control animals.