A Study on the Prevalence of Mental Disorders among the Mentally Retarded Adolescents of Karaj

Mahrokh FATHI, Shahla PEZESHK, Janet HASHEMI AZAR
1.757 515

Abstract


Abstract. The goal of this research is to study the prevalence of mental disorders among the educable mentally retarded people. The method is descriptive and the statistical population includes all the educable mentally retarded adolescents in Karaj aging between 12 and 18. The sample size includes 200 educable mentally retarded adolescents who were the patients of the well-being residential centers and special schools and who were chosen based on convenience sampling. The research tool is “the Riss Screen for dual diagnosis in children” that evaluates 10 mental disorders. The data is analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation). Based on the results, in the aggregate, the prevalence of mental disorders in mentally retarded adolescents is estimated 29. 5 percent. Among the disorders, the anger/Self Control disorder, attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder had the highest prevalence among the sample educable mentally retarded adolescents, respectively. Based on the research, it is recommended that in addition to cognitive problems, the psychological problems of these children should be taken into consideration.


Keywords


Prevalence, Mental retardation, Mental Disorder

Full Text:

PDF


References


Borthwick-Duffy, S. A. (1994). Epidemilogy and prevalence of psychopathology in people with mental retardation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 17-27.

Bouras, N., & Holt, G. (2007). Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in intellectual and developmental disabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, M., & Malone, R. P. (1991). Mental retardation and psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 374-379.

Davidson, P. W., Morris, D., & Cain, N. N. (1999). Community services for people with developmental disabilities and psychiatric or severe behavior disorders. In N. Bouras (Ed.), Mental health in mental retardation: Recent advances and practices(PP. 275-292). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Drake, R. E. (2001). Implementing dual diagnosis services for clients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric services, 52(4), 469-476.

Evans, k., & Sullivan, J. M. (2001). Dual diagnosis: Conseling the mentally ill substance abuser. Guilford press.

Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 51-58.

Fletcher, R. j. ( 1993). Mental illness- mental retardation in the united states: policy and treatment challenges. Jurnal of intellectual Disability Research, 37(1), 25-33.

Horwitz, S. M. (2003). Mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation: Challenges to accurate prevalence estimates. Public Health Reports. Accesse

online at www. highbeam. com.

Jacobson, J. w. (1982). problem behavior and psychiatric impairment within a developmentally disabled population. I: Behavior frequency. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 3, 121-139.

Jacobson, J. (1999). Dual diagnosis services: History, progress, and perspectives. In N. Bouras (ED), Psychiatric and behavior disorders in developmental disabilities and mental retardation(pp. 329-358). New Yourk: Cambridge University Press.

Jopp, D. (2001). An examination of diagnostic overshadowing bias. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 62(3-B), 1582.

Matson, J. L., & Sevin, J. A. (1994). Theories of dual diagnosis in mental retardation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62, 6–16.

Matson, J. L. (2007). Handbook of Assessment in Persons with Intellectual Disability. San Diego, CA: Academic Press

McDermott, S., Durking, M. S., Schupf, N., & Stein, Z. (2007). Epidemiology and etiology of mental retardation: In J. W. Jacobson, J. A. Mulick, & J. Rojahn. (Eds. ), Handbook of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (pp. 3-41). New York: Springer Press.

Menolascino, F. J., & Feisher, M. H. (1991). Developmental concepts in mental retardation and mental illness. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 1, 45-56.

O´Connell, D. F., &Beyer, E. (Eds). (2002). Managing the diagnosed patient: Current issues and clinical approaches(2nd ed. ). New York: Haworth.

Reiss, S. (1993). Assessmeant of Psychopathology in person with mental retardation. In J. L. Matso & R. P. Barrett(EDS). Psychopathology in the mentallr retatded (PP. 17-40). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Reiss, S. (1994). Handbook of Challenging behavior: Mental health aspects of mental retardation. Worthington, OH: IDS Publishing.

Reiss, S. (1994). Psychopathology in mental retardation. In N. Bouras (Ed. ), Mental Health in Mental Retardation: Recent Advances in Practice (pp 67-78). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rojahn, J., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., & Jacobson, J. W. (1993). The association between psychiatric diagnoses and severe behavior problems in mental retardation. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 5, 163-170.

Ruedrick, S. & Menolascino, F. J. (1984). Dual diagnosid of mental retardation and mental illness an overview. In F. Menolascino & J. stark, eds.

Sovner, R. (1986). Limiting factor in the use of DSM-III criteria with mentally ill/mentally retarded persons. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 22, 1055-1059.

Szymanski, L. S. (1994). Mental retardation and mental health: Concepts, etiology, and incidence. In N. Bouras(ED). Mental health in mental retardation: Recent advances and practices (PP. 19-33). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Voelker, R., & Goldsmith. M. F. ( 2002). Putting mental retardation and mental illness on health care professionals rader screen. ( Medical News & Perspectives). JAMA, 288, 433- 436.

Vander Schie-Bezyak, J. L. (2003). Service problems and solutions for individuals with mental retardation and mental illness. The Journal of Rehabilition.