A Comparative Study of Learning Style Preferences of Monolingual and Bilingual High School Female Students and the Impact of Such Preferences on Language Learning Achievement
Abstract. Every person has a preferred way of learning that is called learning style. Due to the significant role of learning style in learning achievement, it is an ongoing issue of great importance to educational research. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating and comparing learning styles of monolingual (Persian) and bilingual (Turkish-Persian) high school female students. It also examined the impact of learning styles on language learning achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 300 students who were divided into two language groups: 150 bilinguals and 150 monolinguals. Cluster sampling was employed for selecting the sample. In this quantitative and qualitative study, a mixed-method was utilized for collecting data. One was Kolb's Learning Style Inventory for assessing students’ learning styles. The other was a semi-structured interview administered to 25 monolingual and 25 bilingual students to confirm the findings of the questionnaire. To examine the relationship between students’ learning styles and their achievement in learning English, students’ English scores obtained from mid-term and final exams in a semester were collected. As for data analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and independent sample t-tests were utilized. The data analysis of the questionnaire revealed that the prevalence of diverging learning style was higher in bilinguals, while the incidence of accommodating learning style was higher in monolinguals. Findings obtained from the interview indicated that bilinguals’ major learning style was diverging and monolinguals’ most preferred learning style was assimilating. Results showed a significant relationship between students’ learning styles and their achievement in learning English. In comparison with monolinguals, bilinguals were superior in learning English.
Akhtar, Z. (2010). The effects of learning styles and socio-economic status on learning chievement of secondary school students. PhD dissertation, National University of Modern
Languages, Islamabad. [On-line]. Available:http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/759S.pdf Barmeyer, C. I. (2004). Learning styles and their impact on cross-cultural training: An international comparison in France, Germany and Quebec. International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 28, 577-594. [On-line]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.011
Barzegar, M. (2011). The relationship between learning style , locus of control and academic achievement in Iranian students. International Proceedings of Economics
Development and Research, 13, 195-199
Beceren, S. (2010). Comparison of metalinguistic development in sequential bilinguals and monolinguals. The International Journal of Educational Researchers, 1(1), 28- [On-line].
Available: 40. http://ijer.eab.org.tr/1/1/4_beceren.s.pdf, Bialystok, E. (2011). Reshaping the mind: The benefits of bilingualism. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(4), 229- 2
Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I., Green, D. W., & Gollan, T. H. (2009). Bilingual minds.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10(3), 89-129. Bidabadi, F. S., & Yamat, H. (2010). Learning style preferences by Iranian EFL freshmen university students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 219-226.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). The USA:
Pearson Education, White Plains, NY, ISBN: 0-13-199128-0
Celce-Marcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.)
Dewey Publishing Services: NY Clarkson, P. C. (2008). Australian vietnamese students learning mathematics: High ability bilinguals and their use of their language, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 64, 191–215.
Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K.(2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systemic and critical review. London: Learning Skills Research Centre.
[On-line]. Available: http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf
Coper, G. C. (1981). Black language and holistic cognitive style. Journal of Black Studies,5(3), 201-207.
Dunn, R. (1989). Grouping students for instructions: effects of learning style on achievement and attitude. The Journal of Social Psychology, 130(4), 485-494.
Dunn, R. & Griggs, S. A. (1998). Multiculturalism and learning style: Teaching and counseling adolescents. The USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Emamipour, S., & Shams Esfandabad, H. (2010). A comparative study of learning styles among monolingual (Persian) and bilingual (Turkish-Persian) secondary school students.
Procedia Social Behavioral Sciences 5, 2419-2422
Farhady, H. (2004). Research methods in applied linguistics. Tehran: Payam-Noor University Press
Felder, R. M. & Henriques, E. R. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language acquisition. Foreign Language Annuals, 28(1), 21-31.
Gagne, E. (1993). The cognitive psychology of school learning. 2nd Edition. New York:
Harper Collins College Publishers Gathercole, V. C. (1997). The linguistic mass/count distinction as an indicator of referent categorization in monolingual and bilingual children. Child Development, 68, 832- 842.
Gunes, C. (2004). Learning style preferences of preparatory school students at Gazi
University. Master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University, Turkey. [Online] Available: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12605465/index.pdf
Haar, J., Hall, G., Schoepp, P., & Smith, D. (2002). How Teachers Teach to Students with
Different Learning Styles. Clearing House, 75 (3) 142-146. Hong, K. (2006). Beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use in an
EFL context: a comparison study of monolingual Korean and bilingual Korean-Chinese university students. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Texas. [On-line]. Available: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5270/m1/
Hong, Y.R. (2007). A survey of the learning style preference of Tibetan EFL learners in
China. US-China Foreign Language, 5(4), 39-43. Hoseinilorgani, M. (1998). Moghayesey-e sabkhay-e yadgiri-e daneshjuyan-e karshenasi, karshenasi arshad va doctora [Comparing learning styles of B.A., M.A. and Phd [ students]
Unpublished master’s thesis, Allameh-Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran. Jilardi, A., Mahyuddin, R., Elias, H., Mohd Daud, Sh., & Shabani, J. (2011). Academic achievement of students with different learning styles. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 3(2), 186-192.
Kara, S. (2009). Learning styles and teaching styles: A case study in foreign language classroom. Conference of the International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 1(20), 77 – 82. karimi, A. A., & Bakhshalizadeh, S. (2008). Ministry of Education of Islamic Republic of
Iran. In I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, J. F. Olson, D. R. Berger, D. Milne & G. M. Stanco (Eds.) Timss 2007 Encyclopedia: A Guide to Mathematics and Science Education around the world (vol. 1): TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of
Education, Boston College Keefe, J.W. (1985). Assessment of learning style variables: The NASSP Task Force
Model. Theory into Practice, 24(2), 138-144. Kinsella, K. (1996). Designing group work that supports and enhances diverse classroom work styles. TESOL Journal, 6(1), 24-31.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Kolb, D. A. (1985). Learning-Style Inventory: Self-scoring inventory and interpretation booklet. Boston: McBer.
Kuile, H. T., Veldhuis, M., Van Veen, S., & Wicherts, J. (2011). Bilingual education, metalinguistic awareness, and the understanding of an unknown language Bilingualism:
Language and Cognition 14 (2), 233–242. Lehtonen, M., Hulten, A., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Cunillera, T., Tuomainen, T., & Laine, M. (2012). Differences in word recognition between early bilinguals and monolinguals:
Behavioral and ERP evidence. Neuropsychologia, 50, 1362– 1371
Lindsay, E. K. (1999). An analysis of matches of teaching style and the uses of education technology. The American Journal of Distance Education, 13(2), 113-119.
Moeni, M., Aliapour, A., & Ghaderi, E. (2009). Study of learning styles and their roles in the academic achievement of the students of Payame Noor University (PNU). Turkish Online
Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 10(2), 24-37. Moradi, A. (2010). Moghayesey-e sabkhay-e yadgiriy-e (hamgara, vagara jazbkonandeh, va entebaghyabandeh) daneshamoozan-e pesar-e yekzabane va dozabane [A comparative study of learning styles (converging, diverging, assimilating, and accommodating) of monolingual and bilingual male students.Unpublished master’s thesis, Tabriz University, Iran.
Nayak, N., Hansen, N., Krueger, N., & McLaughlin, B. (1990). Language-learning strategies in monolingual and multilingual adults. Language Learning, 40(2), 221-244.
Oxford, R. L. (1999). ‘Style wars’ as a source of anxiety in language classrooms. In D. J.
Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning 216-237. Boston: MacGraw-Hill. Oxford, R. L. (2005). Language learning strategies: what every teacher should know. 1st
Edn. Heinle and Heinle, Boston, ISBN-10: 0838428622 pp: 342.
Oxford, R. & Lavine, L. (1992). Teacher-student "style wars" in the language classroom:
Research insights and suggestions. ADFL Bulletin , 23(2), 38-45. Pei-Shi, W. (2012). The effect of learning styles on learning strategy use by EFL learners.
Journal of Social Sciences, 8 (2), 230-234. Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J. (2012). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 0(0) 1-14.
Pourhossein, A. (2012). Visual, auditory, kinesthetic learning styles and their impacts on
English language teaching. Journal of Studies in Education, 2(1), 104-113. Ransdell, S., Barbier, M., & Niit, T. (2006). Metacognitions about language skill and working memory among monolingual and bilingual college students: When does multilingualism matter? The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9, 728–741.
Reid, J.M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 87-111.
Riazi, M., & Riasati. M. J. (2007). Language learning style preferences: A case study of
Shiraz EFL Institutes. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 9(1), 97-125. Riding R. (2005). Individual differences and educational performance. Educational Psychology,25(6), 659-672.
Seif, A. (2001). Educational psychology: learning and education. Tehran: Agah.
Smith, P., & Blake, D. (2005). Facilitating learning through effective teaching: At a, glance. Adelaide, SA: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
Sternberg, R. J. & Zhang, L. F. (2001). Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles. Lawrence Elbraum Associates.
Zainol Abidin, M., Rezae, A., Nor Abdullah, H., & Balbir Singh, K. (2011). Learning styles and overall academic achievement in a specific educational system.
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(10), 143-152.