Detecting hydrogen gas by single electron tunneling based sensors: an image processing and simulation study
Abstract. We present a hydrogen sensor based on single electron tunneling at two dimensional (2D) hexagonal closed packed arrays of palladium nano-islands. Parameters of the hexagonal closed packed arrays of palladium nanoparticles were extracted from experimental TEM results by image processing methods. Using SIMON simulator, emergences of the coulomb blockade were inspected by studying Current-Voltage (IV) characteristics of equivalent circuits consisting of palladium islands and tunneling junctions. After ensuring the emergence of Coulomb blockade phenomena in these arrays, the possibilities of using these arrays as an ultra-low power consumption hydrogen sensor were studied. The changes in IV characteristics were investigated after exposing to hydrogen gas according to the lattice parameter expansion of palladium nanoparticles at different pressures of hydrogen gas. The change in the resistance of the device before and after exposing to hydrogen was extracted. The obtained results show that this configuration shows single electron tunneling and can be used as the hydrogen gas sensor. The response of the sensor is less than 15 seconds with measuring range as low as 0.5% H2.
Jacobson M. Z., Colella W. G., Golden D. M. (2005). "Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles." Science 308(5730): 1901-1905.
LiekhusK. J., Zlochower I. A., Cashdollar K. L., Djordjevic S. M., Loehr C. A. (2000). "Flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds and hydrogen." Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 13(3): 377-384.
Hübert T., Boon-Brett L., Black G., Banach U. (2011). "Hydrogen sensors–a review." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 157(2): 329-352.
Xie B., Liu L., Zhang Y., Peng X., Xu Q., Zheng M., Song F., Wang G., Han M., Takiya T. (2011). Dense palladium nanoparticle arrays with controlled coverage for fast hydrogen sensors. Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE.
Zhang P., Deshpande S., Seal S., Seal S., Medelius PJ. (2006). "Fast Detection of Hydrogen at Room Temperature Using a Nanoparticle-integrated Microsensor. " Sensors, 2006. 5th IEEE Conference on, IEEE.
Van Lith J., Lassesson A., Brown SA., Schulze M., Partridge JG., Ayesh A. (2007). "A hydrogen sensor based on tunneling between palladium clusters." Applied Physics Letters 91(18): 181910.
Kim S.-W., Park J., Jang Y., Chung Y., Hwang S., Hyeon T., Kim Y. W. (2003). "Synthesis of Monodisperse Palladium Nanoparticles." Nano Letters 3(9): 1289-1291.
Park J., An K., Hwang Y., Park J.-G., Noh H.-J., Kim J.-Y., Park J-H., Hwang N.-M., Hyeon T. (2004). "Ultra-large-scale syntheses of monodisperse nanocrystals." Nature materials 3(12): 891-895.
Likharev K. K. (1999). "Single-electron devices and their applications." Proceedings of the IEEE 87(4): 606-632.
Mehrara H., Erfanian A., Khaje M., Zahedinejad M., Rezvani F. (2013). "I–V characteristics of two-dimensional nanodot-array single electron transistors." Superlattices and Microstructures 53(0): 1-8.
Karre P. S. K., Acharya M., Knudsen W. R., Bergstrom P. L. (2008). "Single Electron Transistor-Based Gas Sensing With Tungsten Nanoparticles at Room Temperature." Sensors Journal, IEEE 8(6): 797-802.
Fujino H. and Oya T. (2014). "Analysis of electron transfer among quantum dots in two- dimensional quantum dot network." Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 53(6S): 06JE02.
Ingham B., Toney M. F., Hendy S. C., Cox T., Fong D. D., Eastman J. A., Fuoss, Paul H., Stevens Kevin. J., Lassesson A., Brown SA. (2008). "Particle size effect of hydrogen-induced lattice expansion of palladium nanoclusters." Physical Review B 78(24): 245408.
Barwiński, B. (1987). "Temperature dependence of the electrical conduction in discontinuos silver films on sapphire substrates." Thin Solid Films 148(3): 233-241.
Averin, D. V. and Odintsov A. A. (1989). "Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the electric charge in small tunnel junctions." Physics Letters A 140(5): 251-257.
Geerligs L. J., Averin D. V., Mooij J. E. (1990). "Observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling through the Coulomb energy barrier." Physical Review Letters 65(24): 3037-3040.
Wasshuber, C. and Kosina H. (1997). "A single-electron device and circuit simulator." Superlattices and Microstructures 21(1): 37-42.